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Catriana
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« on: June 18, 2005, 10:55:20 AM »

NIDA InfoFacts: Rohypnol and GHB

 http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofacts/RohypnolGHB.html

Rohypnol and GHB are predominantly central nervous system depressants. Because they are often colorless, tasteless, and odorless, they can be added to beverages and ingested unknowingly.

These substances emerged a few years ago as "drug-assisted assault" drugs.* Because of concern about their abuse, Congress passed the "Drug-Induced Rape Prevention and Punishment Act of 1996" in October 1996. This legislation increased Federal penalties for use of any controlled substance to aid in sexual assault.

Rohypnol

Rohypnol, a trade name for flunitrazepam, belongs to a class of drugs known as benzodiazepines. Rohypnol can incapacitate victims and prevent them from resisting sexual assault. It can produce "anterograde amnesia," which means individuals may not remember events they experienced while under the effects of the drug. Also, Rohypnol may be lethal when mixed with alcohol and/or other depressants.

Rohypnol is not approved for use in the United States, and its importation is banned. Illicit use of Rohypnol started appearing in the United States in the early 1990s, where it became known as "rophies," "roofies," "roach," and "rope."

Abuse of two other similar drugs appears to have replaced Rohypnol abuse in some regions of the country. These are clonazepam, marketed in the U.S. as Klonopin and in Mexico as Rivotril, and alprazolam, marketed as Xanax. Rohypnol, however, continues to be a problem among treatment admissions in Texas along the Mexican border.


GHB

Since about 1990, GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate) has been abused in the U.S. for its euphoric, sedative, and anabolic (body building) effects. It is a central nervous system depressant that was widely available over-the-counter in health food stores during the 1980s and until 1992. It was purchased largely by body builders to aid in fat reduction and muscle building. Street names include "liquid ecstasy," "soap," "easy lay," "vita-G," and "Georgia home boy."

Coma and seizures can occur following abuse of GHB. Combining use with other drugs such as alcohol can result in nausea and breathing difficulties. GHB may also produce withdrawal effects, including insomnia, anxiety, tremors, and sweating. GHB and two of its precursors, gamma butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4 butanediol (BD) have been involved in poisonings, overdoses, date rapes, and deaths.


Extent of Use

According to the 2004 Monitoring the Future** (MTF) survey, NIDA's annual survey of drug use among the Nation's high school students, 0.6 percent of 8th-graders, 0.7 percent of 10th-graders, and 1.6 percent of 12th-graders reported annual*** use of Rohypnol.

Annual use of GHB among 8th-graders and 12th-graders remained relatively stable from 2003 to 2004, but 10th-graders reported a significant decrease according to MTF findings. In 2004, 0.7 percent of 8th-graders, 0.8 percent of 10th-graders, and 2.0 percent of 12th-graders reported annual use.

Hospital emergency department (ED) episodes involving GHB rose from 56 in 1994 to 4,969 in 2000, then declined in 2002 to 3,330. Among ED mentions involving club drugs, however, only MDMA (ecstasy) is cited more frequently than GHB.****


Other Information Sources

For additional information on Rohypnol and GHB, please also see the NIDA InfoFacts on Club Drugs and visit www.clubdrugs.org.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

* Also known as "date rape," "drug rape," or "acquaintance rape."

** These data are from the 2004 Monitoring the Future survey, funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, and conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research. The survey has tracked 12th-graders’ illicit drug use and related attitudes since 1975; in 1991, 8th- and 10th-graders were added to the study. The latest data are online at www.drugabuse.gov.

*** "Lifetime" refers to use at least once during a respondent’s lifetime. "Annual" refers to use at least once during the year preceding an individual's response to the survey. "30-day" refers to use at least once during the 30 days preceding an individual's response to the survey.

**** Emergency department data are from the annual Drug Abuse Warning Network, funded by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, DHHS. The survey provides information about emergency department visits that are induced by or related to the use of an illicit drug or the nonmedical use of a legal drug. The latest annual data are available at 1-800-729-6686 or online at www.samhsa.gov.
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Catriana
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« Reply #1 on: June 18, 2005, 10:59:49 AM »

Rohypnol                   February 2003

 http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/factsht/rohypnol/

Background information

Rohypnol is the trade name for the drug flunitrazepam, a benzodiazepine (central nervous system depressant) like Valium, yet 10 times more potent. Outside the United States, Rohypnol is legally manufactured by Hoffman-LaRoche, Inc., and is available by prescription for the short-term treatment of severe sleep disorders. It is widely available in Europe, Mexico, and Colombia, but is neither manufactured nor approved for sale in the United States.

Illicit use of Rohypnol began in the 1970s in Europe and appeared in the United States in the early 1990s. Much of the concern surrounding Rohypnol is its abuse as a "date rape" drug. Rohypnol is a tasteless and odorless drug and, until recent manufacturer efforts, dissolved clear in liquid, which masked its presence. Rohypnol comes in pill form and is usually sold in the manufacturer’s bubble packaging, which can mislead users in the United States into believing the drug is safe and legal. Since February 1999, reformulated Rohypnol tablets, which turn blue in a drink to increase visibility, have been approved and marketed in 20 countries. The old noncolored tablets are still available, however. In response to the reformulated blue tablets, people who intend to commit a sexual assault facilitated by Rohypnol are now serving blue tropical drinks and punches in which the blue dye can be disguised.

Effects

Rohypnol can be ingested orally, snorted, or injected. It is often combined with alcohol or used as a remedy for the depression that follows a stimulant high. The effects of Rohypnol begin within 15 to 20 minutes of administration and, depending on the amount ingested, may persist for more than 12 hours. The drug’s metabolic properties are detectable in urine for up to 72 hours after ingestion.

Under Rohypnol, individuals may experience a slowing of psychomotor performance, muscle relaxation, decreased blood pressure, sleepiness, and/or amnesia. Some of the adverse side effects associated with the drug’s use are drowsiness, headaches, memory impairment, dizziness, nightmares, confusion, and tremors. Although classified as a depressant, Rohypnol can induce aggression and/or excitability.

Prevalence Estimates

Rohypnol is popular with youth because of its low cost, which is usually less than $5 per tablet. It has been used throughout the United States by high school and college students, street gang members, rave and nightclub attendees, drug addicts, and alcohol abusers. Rohypnol is used in combination with alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, ecstasy, and LSD. The predominant user age group is 13- to 30-years-old and users tend to be male.

Availability, Trafficking, and Seizures

Because Rohypnol is not manufactured nor approved for medical use in the United States, distributors must obtain their supply from other countries. Colombian traffickers ship Rohypnol to the United States via mail services and/or couriers using commercial airlines. Distributors also travel to Mexico to obtain supplies of the drug and smuggle it into the United States.

In the late 1980s, Rohypnol abuse and distribution were occasionally reported in Florida and in the border areas of Arizona, California, and Texas. Beginning around 1993, the abuse and distribution of Rohypnol began to spread, with the vast majority of Rohypnol-related law enforcement cases occurring between January 1993 and December 1996. The two largest Rohypnol seizures occurred in February 1995. At that time, more than 52,000 tablets were seized in Louisiana and 57,000 tablets were seized in Texas. By June 1996, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) had documented more than 2,700 Federal, State, and local law enforcement encounters with Rohypnol.

On March 5, 1996, the U.S. Customs Service began seizing Rohypnol at United States borders on advice from DEA and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. By December 1997, Customs Service efforts had substantially reduced the availability of the drug.

In May 2000, DEA, along with the U.S. Border Patrol, seized 900 Rohypnol tablets in Texas. In July 2000, multiagency investigations led to the closure of a pharmacy in Mexico that used the mail to distribute Rohypnol to California.

According to DEA’s System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence (STRIDE) data, Rohypnol seizures were at their highest in 1995, with 164,534 dosage units, and have since decreased to 4,967 units in 2000.

Regional Observations

According to Pulse Check: Trends in Drug Abuse, Rohypnol is now the least available club drug in the United States. Nevertheless, Los Angeles and El Paso report that the drug is widely available. The remaining Pulse Check sites report it as somewhat, not very, or not at all available.

In El Paso, speedball (a combination of heroin and cocaine) users often use Rohypnol to "soften the fall when coming down." El Paso treatment centers also report clients using "roche," which is presumed to be Rohypnol smuggled in from Mexico.

According to the Community Epidemiology Work Group (CEWG), reports of Rohypnol use have been declining since recent legislation and its use is very low or nonexistent in the majority of CEWG areas. Cities that are exceptions to this decline in use include Atlanta and New Orleans. Poison control calls involving Rohypnol in combination with other drugs have increased in Atlanta where Rohypnol sells for $5 to $10 per pill. In New Orleans, Rohypnol is common in nightclubs and private rave parties.

Texas has experienced increases in poison control calls and treatment admissions for Rohypnol, especially among Hispanic youth close to the Mexican border. In the first quarter of 2000, DEA reported increases in Rohypnol seizures in Laredo, Beaumont, and Austin.

Drug-Facilitated Rape

Drug-facilitated rape can be defined as sexual assault made easier by the offender’s use of an "anesthesia" type drug that can render the victim physically incapacitated or helpless and unable to give consent to sexual activity. Whether the victim is unwittingly administered the drug or willingly ingests it for recreational use is irrelevant. The person is victimized because of an inability to consciously consent to sexual acts.

Rohypnol is one of the drugs most commonly implicated in drug-facilitated rape. It can mentally and physically paralyze an individual. Effects of the drug are of particular concern in combination with alcohol and can lead to anterograde amnesia, where events that occurred during the time the drug was in effect are forgotten.

During 2000, some 261,000 rapes/sexual assaults occurred, but it is unknown how many were drug facilitated. Many factors contribute to this lack of data, including the short period of time that the drug can be detected in the victim’s system. Also, victims may not seek help until days after the assault, partly because the drug impairs their memory and partly because of their inability to recognize signs of sexual assault. As with any sexual assault, survivors need help regaining a sense of control and security. Many victims rely on a support system to help them deal with the flood of emotions in the aftermath of the assault.

Scheduling and Legislation

As a result of the 1971 United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances, the United States placed Rohypnol under Schedule IV of the Controlled Substances Act in 1984. Rohypnol is not approved for manufacture or sale within the United States.

Controlled Substances Act—Formal Scheduling
Schedule I—The drug has a high potential for abuse, is not currently accepted for medical use in treatment in the United States, and lacks accepted safety for use under medical supervision.

Schedule II—The drug has a high potential for abuse, is currently accepted for medical use in treatment in the United States, and may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.

Schedule III—The drug has less potential for abuse than drugs in Schedule I and II categories, is currently accepted for medical use in treatment in the United States, and may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.

Schedule IV—The drug has low potential for abuse relative to other drugs, is currently accepted for medical use in treatment in the United States, and may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to drugs in Schedule III.

Schedule V—The drug has a low potential for abuse relative to drugs in Schedule IV, is currently accepted for medical use in treatment in the United States, and may lead to limited physical or psychological dependence relative to drugs in Schedule IV.
 

By March 1995, the United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs had transferred Rohypnol from a Schedule IV to a Schedule III drug. DEA is reviewing the possibility of reclassifying Rohypnol as a Schedule I drug. At the State level, Rohypnol already has been reclassified as a Schedule I substance in Florida, Idaho, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania.

In response to Rohypnol abuse and use of the drug to facilitate sexual assaults, the U.S. Congress passed the Drug Induced Rape Prevention and Punishment Act, effective October 13, 1996. The law provides for harsher penalties regarding the distribution of a controlled substance to an individual without the individual’s consent and with the intent to commit a crime of violence, including rape. The law imposes a penalty of up to 20 years in prison and a fine for the importation and distribution of 1 gram or more of Rohypnol. Simple possession is punishable by 3 years in prison and a fine.

In 1997, penalties for possession, trafficking, and distribution of Rohypnol were further increased by the U.S. Sentencing Commission’s Federal Sentencing Guidelines to those of a Schedule I substance because of growing abuse of the drug.

Street Terms

Street Terms for Rohypnol  
Circles
Forget me drug
Forget me pill
Getting roached
La Rocha
Lunch money drug
Mexican valium  Pingus
R-2
Reynolds
Rib
Roach-2
Roapies
Robutal  Roofies
Rope
Rophies
Row-shay
Ruffles
Wolfies  


Resources

Rape Drugs Overview, Santa Monica Hospital Medical Center, Rape Treatment Center
http://66.216.123.69/RTC/Rape+Drugs/Rape+Drugs+Overview/Rape+Drugs+Overview.htm

In the Spotlight: Club Drugs. National Criminal Justice Reference Service.
www.ncjrs.org/spotlight/club_drugs/summary.html

ClubDrugs.org. National Institute on Drug Abuse.
www.clubdrugs.org
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