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Author Topic: Australia by Tibrogargan January 2007 - present and 155216+ views later!  (Read 540876 times)
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Tibrogargan
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« Reply #660 on: August 15, 2007, 03:31:25 AM »

THE AUSTRALIAN COURTS

The Federal Judicature

Chapter III of the Constitution (sections 71–80), called ‘The Judicature’, provides for the judicial branch of the Commonwealth. It establishes the High Court of Australia and empowers the Commonwealth Parliament to create other federal courts and to vest federal judicial power in State and Territory courts.  "Federal judicial power" is the power to decide a dispute of the kind set out in sections 75 and 76 of the Constitution.

There are four principal federal courts:
1.   the High Court,
2.   the Federal Court of Australia,
3.   the Family Court of Australia, and
4.   the Federal Magistrates Court of Australia.

Federal judges and magistrates are appointed by the Government of the day on the basis of merit. 
The Australian Constitution does not set out specific qualifications required by federal judges and magistrates.  However, laws made by the Commonwealth Parliament  provide that, to be appointed as a federal judge, a person must have been a legal practitioner for at least five years or be a judge of another court. To  be appointed as a federal magistrate, a person must have been a legal practitioner for at least five years. To be appointed as a judge of the Family Court of Australia, a person must also be suitable to deal with family law matters by reason of training, experience and personality. 

All federal judges and magistrates are appointed to the age of 70.  The Australian Constitution provides that a federal judge or magistrate can only be removed from office on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity, on an address from both the House of Representatives and the Senate in the same session. The Australian Constitution provides that the remuneration of a federal judge or magistrate cannot be reduced while the person holds office. These guarantees of tenure and remuneration assist in securing judicial independence. 

The independence of the courts, and their separation from the legislative and executive arms of government, is regarded as of great importance in Australia and it is taken for granted that judges, in interpreting and applying the law, act independently of the Government.
 
The Court system

Commonwealth courts

The High Court of Australia

The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia. 
The Court has a Chief Justice and six other judges.
One of the High Court's principal functions is to decide disputes about the meaning of the Constitution. For example, if the validity of an Act passed by the Commonwealth Parliament is challenged, the High Court is responsible for ultimately determining whether the Act is within the legislative powers of the Commonwealth. The High Court is also the final court of appeal within Australia in all other types of cases, including those dealing with purely State matters such as the interpretation of State criminal laws.



High Court of Australia

The Australian Constitution vests two types of jurisdiction in the High Court: original and appellate.
Original jurisdiction is conferred by section 75 of the Constitution in respect of the following matters:
·   matters arising under any treaty
·   matters affecting consuls or other representatives of other countries
·   matters in which the Commonwealth of Australia, or a person suing or being sued on behalf of the Commonwealth of Australia, is a party
·   matters between States, or between residents of different States, or between a State and a resident of another State, and
·   matters in which a writ of mandamus or prohibition – or an injunction is sought against an officer of the Commonwealth, including a judge.
Under section 76 of the Constitution, the Parliament may also make laws conferring original jurisdiction in other matters, including matters arising under the Constitution and matters arising under laws made by the Parliament.
The High Court is also the Court of Disputed Returns in relation to disputes about the validity of federal elections.
Section 73 of the Constitution confers appellate jurisdiction on the High Court to hear appeals from decisions of:
·   the High Court in its original jurisdiction
·   Federal courts
·   other courts exercising federal jurisdiction, and
·   State Supreme Courts.
In considering whether to grant an application for leave to appeal from a judgment, the High Court may have regard to any matters that it considers relevant, but it is required to have regard to whether the application before it:
·   involves a question of law that is of public importance, or upon which there are differences of opinion within, or among, different courts, or
·   should be considered by the High Court in the interests of the administration of justice.



High Court of Aust Public Hall


The Federal Court of Australia

The Federal Court of Australia came into existence on 1 February 1977. It sits in each State and, as necessary, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory.
The Court has such original jurisdiction as is invested in it by laws made by the Commonwealth Parliament including, for example, in relation to matters in which a writ of mandamus or prohibition or an injunction is sought against an officer of the Commonwealth Government, and matters arising under Commonwealth laws, including bankruptcy, corporations, industrial relations, taxation and trade practices laws.
The Federal Court of Australia hears appeals from the decisions of single judges of the Court and decisions (except family law decisions) of the Federal Magistrates Court. It also hears appeals from some decisions of State and Territory Supreme Courts.

The Family Court of Australia

The Family Court of Australia is a specialist court dealing with family and child support disputes.
The Family Court exercises original and appellate jurisdiction throughout Australia except in Western Australia.
In Western Australia, the Family Court of Western Australia decides family and child support disputes.  This Court is a State Court funded almost entirely by the Commonwealth Government. The judges of the Family Court of Western Australia also hold commissions as judges of the Family Court of Australia.

The Federal Magistrates Court

The Federal Magistrates Court commenced operation in July 2000.  It was established to deal with less complex disputes under Commonwealth laws. Its jurisdiction includes family law and child support, administrative law, bankruptcy law, discrimination, workplace relations and consumer protection law.  It shares its jurisdiction with the Family Court of Australia and the Federal Court of Australia.



High Court of Aust - Court 1

Industrial Relations Court of Australia

The Industrial Relations Court of Australia was established in March 1994 to deal with a range of industrial relations matters. Its jurisdiction was transferred to the Federal Court of Australia in May 1997. The judges of the Industrial Relations Court are also judges of the Federal Court and work full-time as judges of that Court.  However, the Industrial Relations Court will remain in existence until there are no judges remaining who hold office as judges of that Court.

State and Territory Courts

Australian State and Territory courts decide cases brought under State or Territory laws and, where jurisdiction is conferred on these courts by the Commonwealth Parliament, they also decide cases arising under federal laws. Most criminal matters, whether arising under Commonwealth, State or Territory law, are dealt with by State or Territory courts.
The Supreme Courts of the States, the Australian Capital Territory, the Northern Territory and Norfolk Island are the highest State and Territory courts and deal with the most important civil litigation and the most serious criminal cases. They also hear appeals from decisions made by the lower State courts or single Judges of the Supreme Court.
State intermediate courts decide the great majority of serious criminal offences where a jury is required to decide the facts of a case. They also deal with civil litigation up to certain monetary limits.
State and Territory courts of summary jurisdiction deal with most of the ordinary (summary) offences, such as traffic infringements, minor assaults and street offences. These courts also deal with civil litigation for debt recovery, smaller claims by one citizen against another or against companies, and some minor claims under federal laws.
Magistrates in these courts also conduct committal proceedings in respect of the more serious offences to determine whether there is a prima facie case to be determined by a Judge and jury, either in an intermediate court or a Supreme Court. Juries are not used in courts of summary jurisdiction.
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« Reply #661 on: August 16, 2007, 02:59:44 AM »

BEAUTY POINT, TASMANIA

Located 44 km north west of Launceston on the West Tamar Highway, Beauty Point is a tiny township originally established as the first deepwater port on the Tamar River and today the site of the Australian Maritime College.  Situated on Port Dalrymple (the mouth of the Tamar River) opposite George Town, Beauty Point lies in the heart of a rich sheep, cattle and vine-growing district although it is the port facilities which lie at the heart of the small town's economic life.

The original Beauty Point wharf, where the first deepwater vessels arrived, has been demolished and replaced by the Australian Maritime College which now houses over 100 residential students who study courses in seamanship and fishing. The college has two training vessels.  The town's first wharf was established in response to the growing importance of Beaconsfield which, as a result of the gold boom, was the third largest town in Tasmania.



Platypus House and Seahorse World in Beauty Point near Launceston in Tasmania introduce visitors to some very weird animals.
 
Most of us know a bit about platypuses, including how shy they are, but how often do we get the opportunity to come face to face with them? At Platypus House you can watch Tasmanian platypuses go about their daily business, hunting for mealworms and swimming through water. During your visit you'll be able to see how they open mussels without breaking the shells and learn other interesting facts, like why they were cropped commercially and that their bills are soft.



Right next to Platypus House is another amazing micro-zoo with some more unusual creatures of the deep - seahorses! The Seahorse Museum showcases seahorses, seadragons, pipe fish and many other Tasmanian species. It was already the world's first seahorse farm, and now the aquarium area features a seahorse cave and a touch pool, including seahorse species you won't see anywhere else in the world - and if you arrive in the morning, you'll even have the opportunity to feed them.
The large touch pool gives kids and adults a chance to get up close and personal with starfish, sea stars, hermit crabs, spider crabs, southern rock lobsters and baby leather jackets, just to name a few. If the platypuses and seahorses aren't weird enough, step into the insect world! Creepy Crawly World, attached to Platypus House, offers more of these critters than you'd probably care to see - leeches, cockroaches, scorpions, spiders, dung beetles and a creepy array of freshwater insects.



The Australian Maritime College (AMC) was established in 1978 in northern Tasmania as a national centre for maritime education and training.  It offers both university and VTE-sector courses in a unique range of areas: engineering (naval architecture, ocean engineering, marine and offshore engineering); fisheries (including marine resource management, aquaculture management and marine policy); maritime operations (navigation, nautical studies, vessel operations); and maritime and logistics management.



AMC's main campus is situated at Newnham, six kilometres from the Launceston city centre.  The College Administration and the Faculty of Maritime Transport and Engineering are based at Newnham.  The site overlooks the Tamar River and adjoins the Launceston campus of the University of Tasmania.  The Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Environment is located at Beauty Point, about 50 km north of Launceston, near the mouth of the Tamar River.  AMC's vessels are moored in this area.  A fire fighting centre is located at Bell Bay.  Some courses are also offered through AMC's National Centre for Marine and Coastal Conservation on the Mornington Peninsula in Victoria.


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« Reply #662 on: August 17, 2007, 03:31:08 AM »

THE GHAN



It’s an odd name for a train but in Australian history it is a living legend. For it is the ultimate journey through the heart of the continent. A hundred and fifty years ago, the first camels were imported along with their handlers from Afghanistan and, in true Australian style, we soon shortened their name to ‘Ghan’. The Ghan train derives its name from these early pioneers and its emblem of an Afghan on a camel is in recognition of their efforts in opening up the harsh interior to the rest of Australia.



Today, you can make this journey with creature comforts our forbears would never have imagined. Boarding The Ghan in Adelaide for Alice Springs and Darwin, you’ll experience one of the most fascinating great train journeys of the world. You’ll marvel at the spectacular colours of the outback, the spinifex plains and salt pans of the vast interior and the rugged MacDonnell Ranges before travelling on to the tropical splendor of Darwin and the Top End. Alice Springs is the ideal base from which to explore the wonders of the Red Centre, such as Palm Valley, Ayers Rock/ Uluru, The Olgas/ Kata Tjuta and King’s Canyon.



The 47 hour, 2979km transcontinental journey departs from Adelaide, passes through the "Wheat Belt" to Port Pirie, follows the scenic Flinders Ranges to Port Augusta, and then heads north from Tarcoola through the MacDonnell Ranges, approaching Alice Springs through Heavitree Gap, a narrow pass which accommodates the railway line, the road and the Todd River.



From Alice Springs the train continues its northward journey crossing that well known line on the map, the Tropic of Capricorn. The rocky ranges soon give way to the dry, spinifex and ti tree country skirting the vast Tanami Desert. You are now in the very heart of the Australian continent, a harsh, sparsely populated region of the outback.



Pass through the gold mining settlement of Tennant Creek en route to Katherine where the train stops for about 4 hours. There is time to take an optional boat cruise or helicopter tour at spectacular Katherine Gorge in the nearby Nitmiluk National Park.



From Katherine The Ghan makes its way through the lush green tropics, crossing the Adelaide River and arriving at journeys end in Darwin, port and capital city of the Northern Territory.
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« Reply #663 on: August 18, 2007, 02:12:45 AM »

GREAT SANDY NATIONAL PARK, QUEENSLAND



Sand, wind and water have sculpted a varied landscape at Cooloola, the largest remnant of coastal vegetation on southern Queensland's mainland. High sand dunes, coloured sand cliffs, sweeping beaches, sandblows, freshwater lakes, tall forests, paperbark swamps and wildflower heaths make this a spectacular part of Great Sandy National Park. Cooloola is a refuge for plants and animals whose habitats have dwindled with coastal development. Some of the animals living here, such as the Cooloola acid frogs and ground parrot, are rare or threatened with extinction, and the park has one of the few remaining emu populations in coastal Queensland. For thousands of years, Cooloola has been a special place for Aboriginal people. Through timber-getting, agriculture and sandmining, Cooloola has undergone many changes in the past 150 years. Today, Cooloola protects valuable coastal ecosystem remnants and is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Queensland.



Over the past two million years, ocean currents and waves have swept sand north from the continental shelf of New South Wales and southern Queensland. Sand accumulates and covers the bedrock to form dunes parallel to the coast, leaving only peaks uncovered — today's headlands. Onshore winds blow some loose sand inland into high parabolic (hairpin-shaped) dunes, which march inland over parts of older dunes, forming a sequence of overlapping dunes. Fraser Island and Cooloola are remnants of sandmasses once stretching 30km east. Major dune-building has continued in episodes as sea levels rise and fall, forming a sequence of at least eight overlapping dune systems of different ages, some more than 700,000 years old — the world's oldest recorded sequence. These processes continue shaping the sandmasses.



Sandblows form when strong onshore winds break through the vegetation cover, driving sand from the eroding dunes. They engulf forests in their path, at rates of up to 1m each year. New sandblows can also form when the stabilising plant cover is damaged by fire and wind, walkers and vehicles.

Scattered along the beaches are outcrops of soft, dark-brown "coffee rock", made up of sand grains weakly cemented by organic matter (plant remains). This is a reminder of a time when the sandmass stretched further to sea — and the currently exposed coffee rock was inland, formed as part of the sandmass's soil layers.

Underlying parts of the windblown sandmasses of Fraser Island and Cooloola are coloured sands — the visible parts of older sand that have bound with clay into a weakly consolidated mass. The yellows, browns and reds are colours created by iron-rich minerals in the dune sands which, over thousands of years, stain the sand a complex array of tones and hues. Spectacular sculptures emerge where wind and rain erode the sandmass, exposing this soft older core. These can be seen at Rainbow Gorge and Cathedrals, where the Pinnacles and Red Canyon are striking examples.



Amazingly, each of Great Sandy's freshwater dune lakes is unique in shape and colour. More than 40 dune lakes occur here — over half the world's known total. Lake Boomanjin, the world's largest perched lake (200ha) and Boomerang Lakes, some of the world's highest (120m above sea level), are on Fraser Island. Perched lakes such as Birrabeen and Lake McKenzie on Fraser Island and Lake Poona in Cooloola are Great Sandy National Parks's most common type of lake. They develop when a saucer-shaped "hard pan" of organic debris, sand and peat forms in a depression between dunes. Water collects, slowly filtering to the watertable below. Barrage lakes form when a mobile sand dune dams a watercourse, usually in younger dunes close to the coast. Interested visitors can walk to Lake Wabby on Fraser Island, from the eastern beach. Window lakes, generally at low elevations, form where the ground surface drops below the watertable level and fills with groundwater. Some window lakes have been barraged by sand dunes. All the freshwater lakes are low in nutrients and support few plants and animals. Most lakes have only two or three fish species. Eli and Wanggoolba Creeks are noted for their flow of crystal clear water — mainly localised outflows of groundwater from the sandmass. They contrast with the golden-brown, tannin stained creeks and seepages such as those into Lake Booomanjin.



Most plants growing on sand draw mineral nourishment from two unlikely sources. They strip the fine mineral coating from grains of beach sand (turning yellowish grains white) and also absorb small amounts of atmospheric trace minerals, washed into the sand by rain. Decaying plants return these minerals to the sand. Over time, minerals are concentrated in the sandmass, providing nutrients that support a succession of forest types, form coastal pioneers and shrubby woodlands to tall rainforests. As each successive dune forms, a thicker, deeper nutrient layer develops, able to support taller, more complex forest. But, on Great Sandy's older dunes, the nutrient layer has been leached by water beyond the reach of even deep tree roots. The tall forests are replaced by stunted woodlands, shrubs and low heaths. This phenomenon — "retrogressive succession" — is of international scientific interest. On Fraser Island, older dunes generally lie to the west, overlaid partly by progressively younger dunes to the east.



Life is abundant — pipis (shellfish) and moon snails live in the shifting intertidal sand; sand-bubbler crab colonies leave patterns of tiny sand balls; ghost crabs scuttle on the sand at night. Watch out for bluebottles with long blue stingers, sometimes washed ashore following strong winds. Flotsam, such as jellyfish is food for scavenging crabs and birds, adding nutrients to the sand.

Holding the coastal foredunes together are salt-tolerant pioneer plants: pigface, with its fleshy angular leaves and purple flowers, goatsfoot vine, with its purple trumpet flowers, and beach spinifex, creeping over the dunes and trapping sand swept from the beach by the wind. Pioneer plant species begin nutrient and soil development. Their roots host bacteria that convert airborne nitrogen into nitrates that enrich the soil. Small, hardy trees such as beach she-oak, coastal banksia and pandanus are a more permanent stabilising force on the foredunes. They protect wattles, hopbush, tuckeroo and stunted eucalyptus trees from harsh salt-laden winds. Abundant banksia flowers in these coastal forests provide plentiful food for insects and nectar-feeding birds.



Protected from the harshest salt-laden winds, and growing where richer sand is starting to develop, trees in the mixed forests and woodlands are larger than those of the coastal forests, though more stunted than the same species in the tall eucalypt forests. Fires clear the understorey of foxtail sedge, bracken, blady grass, and fallen leaves and twigs, providing an ashbed for new seedling growth. With age, trees develop hollows that shelter nesting birds and nocturnal gliding possums. Ant nests are conspicuous on the forest floor, and more than 300 species of ants have been recorded in Great Sandy.

Protecting the forest core here you will find tall eucalypt trees, including smooth-barked forest red gums and scribbly gums. These tall trees contrast with tessellated barked bloodwoods, string-barked satinays, and blackbutts, with their rough-barked bases and smooth, light upper limbs. Tall eucalypt forest grows on the ridges on the high middle dunes in the centre of the sandmass. It surrounds the central forest core, protecting rainforests from drying winds and salt. After fire, eucalypts of the tall forest regenerate from seeds released into the ash bed. They also sprout new leaves from special buds protected under thick bark, and from lignotubers (woody tissue attached to the root system) below the ground. Blackbutt trees were the mainstay of the timber industry. Visitors can see remnant stumps of former giants. You may notice occasional large, shield-shaped scars near the base of some trees, where Aboriginal people removed bark for gunyahs (shelters).



The slopes and valleys of the middle, high dunes have the best protection from winds, receive the highest rainfall and have the deepest accessible soils. They are dominated by huge brush box, with bark "stockings" on their lower trunks and smooth red limbs, and the tall, straight-trunked, stringy-barked satinay. Their long roots reach rich nutrients buried deep in the dunes. In other areas, lichen-covered trunks of giants such as kauri and hoop pine emerge above lilly-pilly, quandong, brush box, and strangler figs, draped in vines, orchids, ferns and mosses. Walk slowly to see colourful fungi sprouting on rotting trees, their fine threads slowly decomposing the wood.
These rainforests are known as vine forests. Along their drier margins are low vine forests of small-leafed grey myrtle ("carrol" scrubs), seen on walks from Central Station. Hollows in older trees are nesting sites for mammals and for birds including king parrots, yellow-tailed black cockatoos and sulphur-crested cockatoos, often heard screeching from treetops. The brushtail possum is active at night, as are sugar gliders and flying-foxes.



Wallum communities dominate the older western dune systems, where the main nutrient layer has leached down beyond the reach of tree roots. Only shrubs and smaller trees can grow on the infertile upper sand layer. In seasonally waterlogged areas, paperbark and wet heathlands grow in dense stands. Scribbly gum, pink bloodwood, wallum banksia (with serrated leaves) and black casuarinas (with needle-like leaf stems) grow as low trees above a heathy understorey. Look closely at the hard wallum banksia seed cases — they open only with the heat and smoke of fire, releasing seeds that take advantage of the lack of competition after a fire. Most of Great Sandy's plant communities respond to the frequency, season and intensity of fires.

Swampy, treeless, grassy plains, fringed by paperbarks, colourful heath and swamp banksias, feed tea-coloured water to creeks and lakes. These are wallum heathlands. Frequent fire maintains grassy heathlands by inhibiting tree growth. This preserves habitat and food for fairy wrens and ground-dwelling birds such as quails and ground parrots. Heaths and swamps are home to "acid" frogs (which can tolerate mildly acidic waters), the harmless freshwater snake, and several crustaceans.



Swarms of biting insects and an occasional smell of decomposition mean mangroves are not always pleasant for visitors. But the shelter of their roots and the deep layers of decomposing leaf litter make mangroves the nurseries and feeding grounds for much marine life in Great Sandy. Mangroves are also important in the food webs of nearby heathlands. Great Sandy's mudflats and sandflats are major feeding grounds for migratory shorebirds such as bar-tailed godwits on their flights from the northern to southern hemispheres.

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« Reply #664 on: August 19, 2007, 05:41:41 AM »

MELBOURNE, VICTORIA

Melbourne was founded in 1835, during the reign of King William IV, with the arrival of the schooner 'Enterprize' near the present site of Queen’s Wharf. Unlike other Australian capital cities, Melbourne did not originate under official auspices. It owes its birth to the enterprise and foresight of settlers from Tasmania, where the land available for pastoral purposes was becoming overstocked. These settlers formed the Port Phillip Association for the purpose of the pastoral exploration of Port Phillip. On 10 May, 1835, John Batman set sail in the 30-tonne schooner ‘Rebecca’ on behalf of the Association to explore Port Phillip for land.



Batman and his party, after entering Port Phillip Bay on 29 May, anchored their ship a short distance from the heads and made several excursions through the countryside. On 6 June, at Merri Creek near what is now Northcote, Batman purchased 600 000 acres of land from eight aboriginal chiefs. This area of land included the sites of both Melbourne and Geelong.  The Government later cancelled this purchase and, as a result, had to compensate the Port Phillip Association.



On 8 June, 1835, Batman and his party rowed up the Yarra River and landed near the site of the former Customs House (now the Immigration Museum). John Batman recorded in his journal: “about six miles up, found the river all good water and very deep. This will be the place for a village”. Batman left three white men of his party and five Aborigines from New South Wales behind with instructions to build a hut and commence a garden, and returned to Launceston to report to his association.



John Pascoe Fawkner had made a similar decision to settle at Port Phillip and formed a syndicate in Launceston that purchased the 55-tonne schooner ‘Enterprize’. Fawkner and his party of six set sail from Launceston but due to sea sickness Fawkner had to return to shore and the party sailed without him.



On 29 August, 1835, the ‘Enterprize’ sailed up the Yarra River and anchored at the site chosen earlier by Batman as “the place for a village”. Fawkner’s party then went ashore, landed stores and livestock, and proceeded to erect the settlement’s first home. The ‘Enterprize’ then returned to Launceston to collect Fawkner and his family who eventually arrived at the settlement on 10 October that year.  The Irish pioneer journalist, Edward Finn, using the pen-name ‘Garryowen’, wrote in his ‘Chronicles of early Melbourne’ in 1888, that there had been much dispute as to who actually founded Melbourne. Finn, however, arrived at the conclusion “that not Fawkner, but Fawkner’s party – five men, a woman, and the woman’s cat – were the bona fide founders of the present great metropolis”.



The Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, issued a proclamation on 26 August, 1835 stating that all treaties with Aborigines for the possession of land would be dealt with as if the Aborigines were trespassers on Crown lands. Later that year, Bourke wrote to the Secretary of State, Baron Glenelg, reporting his action and proposing that a township be marked out and allotments sold. On 13 April, 1836, Baron Glenelg authorised Governor Bourke to form a settlement.  The settlement, at this time, lacked the essentials of a town (a governing authority, a legal survey and ownership of lands) but the community was law-abiding and the only disputes were between Batman and Fawkner.



On 25 May, 1836, Governor Bourke sent a Commissioner to report on affairs. In his report he stated that the settlement, which he called ‘Bearbrass’, comprised 13 buildings – three weatherboard, two slate and eight turf huts. “The whole of the European population,” he wrote, “consists of 142 males and 35 females. The number of sheep grazing is 26,900; horses, 57; and horned cattle, 100; while 11 vessels of from 55 to 300 tons are engaged in bringing stock over from Tasmania.”



On 4 March, 1837, Governor Bourke arrived and instructed the Assistant Surveyor-General, Robert Hoddle, who had accompanied him, to lay out the town. The first name suggested by the Colonial Secretary was Glenelg. However, Governor Bourke overruled this and named the settlement Melbourne as a compliment to the Prime Minister of Great Britain.



Hoddle’s plan for Melbourne was approved by Governor Bourke but the plan was based largely on the work of Hoddle’s predecessor and junior, Robert Russell. Garryowen’s ‘Chronicles’ reported that there was a remarkable controversy between Governor Bourke and Surveyor Hoddle and an extract from Hoddle’s journal states – “When I marked out Melbourne in 1837, I proposed that all streets should be ninety-five feet wide. Sir Richard Bourke suggested the lanes as mews or approaches to the stablings and out-buildings of the main streets of buildings. I staked the main streets ninety-nine feet wide and after having done so, was ordered by the Governor to make them sixty-six feet wide; but upon my urging the Governor and convincing him that wide streets were advantageous on the score of health and convenience to the future city of Victoria, he consented to let me have my will. I therefore gave up my objection to the narrow lanes thirty-three feet wide, which have unfortunately become streets, and many expensive buildings have been erected thereon. Had a greater number of allotments been brought to public auction at first, houses in broad streets would have been erected thereon.”



The citizens of Melbourne have reason to be thankful for Hoddle’s insistence on wide main streets. If it were not for these wide thoroughfares, the city would now be experiencing considerably more congestion than would have been thought possible in Hoddle’s day.



Unfortunately, Bourke’s insistence that every second street running north and south be a 'mews' or 'little' street, left Melbourne with a legacy of constraint. This legacy necessitated the Council, in the late 1930s, to request the enactment of legislation to permit it gradually to buy back a four-foot strip of land on both sides of the little streets when redevelopment of each property fronting thereon took place.  If Sir Robert Bourke had not disregarded the remarkable foresight of Robert Hoddle, the citizens of Melbourne would today be enjoying a much less congested city and the Council would have saved the considerable expense involved in endeavouring to rectify these faults.

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« Reply #665 on: August 20, 2007, 03:19:55 AM »

MELBOURNE PRECINCTS, VICTORIA

The City of Melbourne has 15 distinct ‘precincts’ - small pockets of the city with their own unique character, colour and charm. Like London’s West End or New York’s Times Square, each precinct has a recognisable identity. Some are small - just a lane or two - while others will transport you to another world in just a few streets.


You’ll find public art where you least expect it, café society reminiscent of Europe and a treasure trove of surprises awaiting your discovery. Melbourne’s precincts offer culture, intrigue, romance and excitement, from the narrowest laneways to Melbourne’s marvellous waterfront. Exciting, energising and with spectacular views of the city, the Yarra River Precinct is Melbourne’s pulsating heart of entertainment and leisure. There’s everything from fashion and nightclubs to arts, culture and sports.

People flock to the river to play, dine, stroll, drink, shop and jog. Tennis, rugby, cricket and Australian Rules football fans regularly pay homage at the sporting shrines that are Melbourne Park, Olympic Park and the Melbourne Cricket Ground.



If you are looking for a slower pace, just relax. There is plenty of action on the water itself but one of Melbourne’s greatest pleasures is watching the city and its riverside attractions slip past. Choose from scenic cruises, St Kilda penguin trips, ferries to Williamstown, water taxis and more. Visit the information booths near the Southgate river steps for details.

Futuristic Federation Square on the northern banks has opened up new views of the river and the city. The new-wave architecture houses the world’s largest collection of Australian art, plus a complex dedicated to the moving image, a visitor information centre and a range of stylish restaurants and cool bars.

Just across Princes Bridge, Southbank is Melbourne’s cultural heart and home to the Victorian Arts Centre, the National Gallery of Victoria, the Australian Ballet, Melbourne Symphony, the Victorian College of the Arts and Playbox Theatre Company. A real treat for art lovers!



Stroll down the promenade to Southgate for blue ribbon dining, superb shopping and the glitzy Crown Entertainment Complex. Grab a coffee and a bite at one of the excellent cafés, watch the passing pedestrians or take in the stunning view of the Cityscape as it lights up at night.



Adults and children alike will love the Melbourne Aquarium, where you can dive with the sharks, if you’re game. Then take a walk to see the Polly Woodside cargo ship and its maritime museum next to the Melbourne Exhibition Centre, or discover more of Melbourne’s history at the Immigration Museum, in the grand Old Customs House.
Beyond stretches Docklands and Telstra Dome stadium. This huge waterside district is being developed as a "city within a city" for the 21st century, with classy apartments, restaurants, retail and a truly riverside lifestyle.



Modern Brighton on Port Phillip Bay is an affluent suburb where large homes command very large prices that are in sharp contrast to the early days of outer Melbourne settlement. In fact when the British Government’s Land and Emigration Commission approved the sale of 2072 hectares of ‘special survey’ land in 1840, speculators were able to pick up one acre Brighton allotments for the princely sum of $2.

Today, of course, $2 won’t even buy you a click on the door of one of those iconic bathing boxes that are Brighton Beach’s signature. Those colourfully-painted boxes sitting side by side are a reminder of those days when well-to-do bathers could step straight into the sea without getting sand between their toes.



What with its signature bathing boxes, its views across Port Phillip Bay to the office towers of the Melbourne CBD and safe swimming conditions, Brighton is one of the most popular beaches in the metropolitan area.
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« Reply #666 on: August 23, 2007, 09:22:08 PM »

G'day monkey friends,
I will be continuing this thread but posting new material only at the weekends when most monkeys have more opportunity to browse the Forum.
I would also like your thoughts on any subjects in which you are most interested rather than relying only on my selections.
Be good monkeys

.
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« Reply #667 on: August 24, 2007, 05:42:31 AM »

OLIVE RIDLEY OR PACIFIC RIDLEY TURTLE
(Lepidochelys olivacea)

Conservation status

National: Vulnerable
Queensland: Endangered

The olive ridley turtle has a worldwide tropical and subtropical distribution, including northern Australia. Olive ridleys occur in shallow, protected waters, especially in soft-bottomed habitats. In Australia, they occur along the coast from southern Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef, northwards to Torres Strait, the Gulf of Papua, Gulf of Carpentaria, Arafura Sea and Joseph Bonaparte Gulf in Western Australia.



No large rookeries of olive ridleys have been recorded in Australia. An estimate of the nesting population for Australia is 500-1000 females annually, with most nesting in north west Arnhem Land. Olive ridleys nest all year round, although most nesting occurs during the dry season from April to November. Hatchlings emerge from the nests about two months after laying. The olive ridley turtle is carnivorous, feeding mostly on shellfish and small crabs.
Olive Ridley turtle carapace:
·   6 pairs or more of large scales on either side (coastal scales)
·   Carapace circular
·   Colour grey green
·   Adult carapace approx. 0.7m



Very little is known about olive ridley turtles in and around Australia. While they have a wide global range, the number of important breeding sites is very restricted, so efforts to protect their major nesting beaches are vital. The WWF tracking project incorporated continuing nesting studies to give us baseline data about olive ridley population numbers - including the production of eggs from beaches - and aimed to uncover new data, such as the threats to eggs, hatchlings and adults on and around the nesting beach (located 25 km north of the Tiwi Islands' Garden Point). The project also sought to pinpoint migration routes and feeding ground locations, all-important knowledge if we are to identify location-specific threats, such as "ghost" fishing nets and other marine debris. The information gathered helps us to work towards stopping negative human impacts to the world's sea turtles (including olive ridleys) throughout this region into the future.



Several olive ridley nesting beaches occur on the Tiwi Islands. In partnership with the Tiwi Land Council we tracked the movements of five olive ridley turtles from their nesting beach to unknown feeding grounds throughout the Arafura Sea (and beyond). In the week of 19 April 2004, after Milika, Kitirayuwu, Milly, Jika and Mel finished laying their eggs, transmitters were attached to their shells in preparation for their departure into the unknown. The data in the interactive tracking map was collected as transmissions were sent to satellites, which in turn were relayed to the ground for processing. Calculations were then made to determine the location of each turtle (with an accuracy range from 150 - 1000m). Locations could be pinpointed only when the turtles (and their transmitters) are on the surface.



About the Tiwi Islands

Two islands, Bathurst and Melville, comprise "the Tiwis", which are located approximately 80 km to the north of Darwin in the Northern Territory, Australia.
The olive ridley nesting beach is approximately 25 km north of Melville Island's Garden Point.
Melville Island is Australia's second largest Island, after Tasmania.
·   The Tiwi Islands were proclaimed an Aboriginal Reserve in 1912.
·   Tiwi is the main language spoken.
·   Population is approximately 2500.
·   The four main settlements are Nguiu and Wurankuwu on Bathurst Island, and Pularumpi (Garden Point) and Milikapiti (Snake Bay) on Melville Island.
·   The Tiwi Islands are famous for their art and Australian football stars.
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« Reply #668 on: August 24, 2007, 03:49:46 PM »

G'day monkey friends,
I will be continuing this thread but posting new material only at the weekends when most monkeys have more opportunity to browse the Forum.
I would also like your thoughts on any subjects in which you are most interested rather than relying only on my selections.
Be good monkeys

.


Tibro.. You have done a great job ~!!  Such beautiful pictures... !!!
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« Reply #669 on: August 25, 2007, 03:39:35 AM »

Thank you for the kind comments, Angie.
It is not difficult to find beautiful pictures as it is such a beautiful country and so varied from Deserts to Tropical Rainforests and Snowfields.
Some more pictures for everyone to enjoy today :


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« Reply #670 on: August 25, 2007, 03:51:21 AM »

TIWI ISLANDS

North of Darwin lie the Tiwi Islands where traditional life thrives alongside modern ways. The customs and culture of the local people are strong, but they’re also partial to a good game of Australian Rules football.



Doreen Tipiloura paints her face with an intricate design inspired by the saltwater crocodiles which inhabit the turquoise waters of her island home.
Holding a pair of wooden clapping sticks, she begins to sing and dance, her bare feet sending up small clouds of dust. “This is the shark dance,” says the 54-year-old. “We perform it in exactly the same way our ancestors did.”
Cheerful and outgoing, Doreen is an elder living on Bathurst Island, one of the last bastions of traditional Aboriginal culture in Australia.



Lying north of Darwin, at the very northern tip of Australia, Bathurst Island is one of the Tiwi Islands, along with neighbouring Melville Island. For thousands of years the Tiwi thought they were the only people in the world; their first contact with outsiders came in the 1600s, when Macassans (Indonesians) arrived in search of sea cucumber or bêche-de-mer.
In 1824 the British built a settlement at Fort Dundas in the hope that it would become a second Singapore, but disease, heat and attacks by islanders forced them to abandon it after five years.



These days the Tiwi Islands are known for their tropical climate and friendly people, many of whom have a passion for Australian Rules football.
There is also a thriving art scene: murals are painted on just about every available wall, and two artists’ co-operatives produce bark paintings, sculptures and textiles that have become internationally renowned.



At the art centre in Ngaruwanajirri, 38-year-old Barry Kantilla pokes a stick into an old tin can resting on the embers of a fire. Inside is a heap of yellow ochre which he will use for one of his traditional paintings. “See, it changes colour as it heats up. We have yellow, white, red and black. We get the ochre from the bush,” says Barry.
Tiwi art is also on display at the beautifully preserved Catholic church in Nguiu, Bathurst Island’s tiny administrative centre. The interior walls of the white wooden church, which was built in the 1930s, are decorated with cross-hatched designs and paintings of crocodiles, pelicans, crabs and turtles. A traditional Tiwi man in a headdress and a loincloth, flanked by two spears, holds up the baby Jesus. The tabernacle is made of tortoise shell and mother of pearl.



Outside the church is a tiny white shack from where a Catholic priest sent a frantic radio message in February 1942 as he watched dozens of Japanese bombers stream over Bathurst and Melville Islands towards Darwin.
A bent propeller from a Japanese Zero fighter plane rests against the side of the tiny building, one of several enemy planes downed over the islands. Several pilots and crew were captured by Tiwi men, who proudly marched them off into captivity.
Nearby is the Patakijiyali Museum, a small wooden building shaded by mango trees, which tells the fascinating history of the Islands.
The Tiwi people display a pride and self-confidence which is all too often absent from Aboriginal communities on the mainland.
The Catholic Mission, which was established on Bathurst Island in 1911, was relatively benign. The Tiwi were able to weave traditional beliefs into Christianity and keep many aspects of their culture.



“Tiwis have always had ownership of the land and we were never forced to mix with other tribes,” says 34-year-old John Munkara, a tourist guide. “We kept our customs and culture very strong.”
The other big difference is that Bathurst Island only allows alcohol to be sold in its social club. No wine or spirits are available, and beer can only be drunk on the premises — takeaway cans and bottles are not allowed.
The result is that, unlike some Aboriginal settlements, there is no problem with alcohol abuse and the people are remarkably friendly, smiling and waving at tourists.



One of the best spots on the Island is a crystal clear waterhole fringed with palms and pandanus trees, ideal for a refreshing swim on a hot day. Nearby, at a lookout point with sweeping views of deserted beaches and the mangrove-lined coast, is a traditional Tiwi grave.
As with all Tiwi graves it is marked by tall wooden pukumani poles, carved and painted in recognition of the dead person’s achievements in life.



Hunting and gathering remains an important part of Tiwi life, especially at the weekends, when whole families head for the bush.
The men shoot possums, bandicoots and magpie geese, while the women collect shellfish like whelks and mussels. Most prized of all are long, slimy white worms which are hacked out of mangrove branches. “We eat it straight from the tree,” says Munkara. “It’s good for hangovers and pregnant mums!”   




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« Reply #671 on: August 25, 2007, 12:46:40 PM »

Tib,
I was wondering if there is a particular Australian architecture.  We have Colonial, Victorian, Craftsman, Frank Lloyd Wright, etc.  I am mostly interested in homes.  TIA
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« Reply #672 on: August 26, 2007, 02:22:53 AM »

CJ1 that is an excellent subject.  We do have several types of architecture from the very early first settlements right up to the modern day.

 First were the aboriginal shelters they manufactured out of the only materials available from trees and bark and would have only provided some shade and not much shelter from the rain or storms.  The shelters were called a humpy.



Then when the white settlers came they built bush huts from timber they felled themselves and improvised with whatever they could find or what was salvaged from shipwrecks etc.  In the background of this photo it appears a more permanent house is being built of rocks or homemade bricks.



Once the convicts were housed and set to work many more substantial buildings were made out of sandstone blocks and boulders.  These would be worth an article all on their own as they are very beautiful and amazing that they could be so well built with only manual labour.  Of course top architects were brought out to the "colony" to plan and oversee the building of these houses and stores and government facilities.  There are a great many still preserved here and particularly in my home state so will do a separate article on them very soon.

There is a very good website by an artist who has painted a lot of the old buildings from our Colonial, Victorian and Federation architecture and is well worth a look.  It is a copyrighted site so will give you the web address and will check the link works after I post this  Cool When you reach the site click on Art Galleries, then on Heritage Series.

Enjoy.

www.allegria.com.au/houses/

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« Reply #673 on: August 26, 2007, 02:45:03 AM »


Victorian Period (1850 - 1900)

Best identified by the use of decorative cast-iron lace. Lace was introduced to Australia as a feature of domestic architecture by the 1840’s. The designs became more and more ornate and during the Victorian gold rush of 1880, cast-iron reached extreme heights of elaboration. Native animals, birds and flowers were successfully introduced in the intricate lace patterns. The number of dwellings decorated with cast-iron lace in Australia is the highest in the world. The lace is regarded as a lasting symbol of 19th century craftsmanship.



Federation Period (1901 - 1916)

A typical Federation house was a free-standing single-storeyed building in red brick with a roof extending over a large verandah. Varied decorative chimneys, gables, corner towers and terracotta decorations added interest to the otherwise plain roof. Stained glass windows contributed to the charm of the house. The popularity of the era lasted from 1890-1920.



Federation Built between 1901 and the 1920s.

 A very 'pretty', decorative style, with lots of detailing. Both single and double-storey.  Many have had upper level extensions at some time. Generally good internal proportions and lend themselves quite well to being opened out at the back for modern lifestyle preferences.



Queensland Style

The Queensland farmhouse developed gradually to meet the demands of a tropical climate. Built on wooden stilts, high above the ground, it is one of the most distinctively Australian styles, superbly adapted to warm winters and hot summers. The use of decorative cast-iron during the late 19th century with a liberal addition of latticework, gave a distinctive character and charm to the unique vernacular architecture of Queensland.   

                    
Californian or Inter-War Bungalow

Built from about 1915 to the 1940s.  This is a very 'solid' style, generally using dark brick.Usually originally single-storey and less likely to have had an upper-level extension.




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« Reply #674 on: August 29, 2007, 12:29:58 AM »

Tib
The Federation houses look like cute cottages.
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« Reply #675 on: August 31, 2007, 07:04:34 AM »

  Hi Tibro!  I have just caught up on your thread and wanted to let you know how much I enjoy it.  As a West Aussie transplanted in Ohio, it brings back a little of home. I'm afraid to say I've seen so much more of the US and Canada than I have of my own beautiful country. Went to Melbourne in 1970 and hitch-hiked back across the Nullarbor with a girlfriend after a couple of months. It was the 70's, but what were we thinking!  Stopped in Sydney and Melbourne on the last two trips home and did a little sightseeing.  Going to reread your thread to see about my next stopover on my way to Perth, maybe Cairns.
  Please keep up your great thread, I know from reading the board that a lot of other posters really enjoy it as well. Have a great weekend and THANK YOU from the bottom of my Aussie heart.
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« Reply #676 on: September 01, 2007, 03:27:58 AM »

Hi MuminOhio!  Great to see another Aussie here - I should have guessed when I saw Mum instead of Mom!  Welcome to Scared Monkeys.

We certainly did a lot of things here in the 70s and 80s that we would not consider doing these days.  Life was so much less complicated then.  I drove on my own from Melbourne to the Barossa to meet up with friends.  Would not recommend a female driving alone to do it now though.

I have travelled all of our states except for the West and NT.  Was headed to the West one year but family illness intervened and I never got another chance to get that far away.  Loved the 20 years we lived in Queensland and such a laid back lifestyle compared to Sydney and Melbourne. Please feel free to ask for any articles and pictures on any of the areas you may consider visiting on your next trip home.  Have you been to Tasmania yet?  Cool

I have recently decided to post to this thread only at the weekends, as there are so many other places for the monkeys to keep up with now.  Also it will give me more opportunity to follow up articles in more depth.

Hope to hear from you again soon.
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« Reply #677 on: September 01, 2007, 03:52:34 AM »

Hi CJ.  The website that I used for those photos only showed the smaller homes.  I know the Federation houses were usually quite large with many rooms - Lounge, Dining, Breakfast, Morning, Sitting, Music rooms as well as Kitchen, Scullery and Pantry and sometimes a Cold Room.  Bath rooms were pretty basic. All these plus a special Front Room which was out of bounds except for the important visitors.
These larger houses went out of fashion around the second World War as domestic staff became scarce when they went to work in factories or hospitals or joined the forces instead.  Once the lady of the house had to do her own housework it appears the houses became smaller and more manageable.  Ceiling heights dropped from around 12 or 14 foot to 7 or 8 foot.  Building costs rose dramatically also owing to lack of builders and scarcity of materials after the war and this limited the size of homes.  World War 11 had a massive impact on Australians and their way of life.
A lot of these larger homes then were turned into hospitals, nursing homes and other uses which meant a lot were drastically remodelled until they no longer looked as they did when built.  In a lot of cases they were demolished.  For a long while it was considered fashionable to modernise your house and a lot of major alterations were carried out, as well as disposing of all the furniture and buying the latest in design.  Fortunately in recent years it has  become equally fashionable to  keep old buildings as they were originally as much as possible and many of them are renovated back to their original features, colour schemes, etc. Kitchen and bathroom areas are modernised of course but in keeping with the general tone of the house where possible.  Many building supplies outlets now specialise in the various fittings and mouldings etc for Colonial, Federation, Queenslanders styles and so on. A lot of councils also have by laws which regulate what and how much you can renovate and even as far as exterior colour schemes.

Here are a few more examples I have found of Federation Houses :

Original Federation Houses






Interior of Renovated Federation House :





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« Reply #678 on: September 01, 2007, 04:07:37 AM »

Here is a Federation House that has recently been put up for sale so I have been able to get exterior and interior photos:



Side View:



Entrance Door :



Note the pressed metal ceiling, decorative cornice, leadlighting and cedar balustrades :



More lead lighting and lacework :




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« Reply #679 on: September 01, 2007, 04:24:42 AM »

RIO VISTA RENOVATION



This picture would have been taken around 1950 owing to model of car.

Wander through the rooms of Rio Vista, an historic house overlooking the Murray River on the edge of Mildura city, and imagine life in the nineteenth century. Built in 1889 by W.B. Chaffey, in Queen Anne style, the house features original furniture and fittings.



Work is currently underway to restore the Rio Vista mansion to its original condition.
Rio Vista, which means ‘river view' in Spanish was named because of its position overlooking the nearby Murray River. It is a grand construction made of bricks produced at the Chaffey brothers' plant, Murray pine and red gum as well as imported timbers. The layout included five bedrooms, a bathroom with marble bath, a drawing and breakfast room, a smoking room, a polished black wood staircase, jarrah floors and cedar doors, as well as a ballroom with a sprung timber floor for dancing in the basement.



The grand vision included a fountain in the front garden, a separate gardener's cottage and conservatory in the grounds, a carriage drive lined with orange trees, and a bird aviary on the verandah.



The comprehensive restoration program that continues to transform Rio Vista has included replacing ornate timberwork on verandahs, reinstating original doorways and staircases, and returning the drawing room to its original décor with recreation Victorian wallpaper and original colour schemes.



Some notable features of the drawing room included etched glass windows in all internal doors, designed to enable ventilation, marble fireplaces, a bay window, and timber window shutters used to keep the house cool in the hot summer months.
Nineteenth-century wallpapers, which were hidden under subsequent interior design efforts, have been recreated by photographing designs found on walls then having them redrawn and created by hand by specialist Sydney wallpaper artists KG Designs. The paintwork has also been returned to its original colour schemes - a rich combination of gold, pinks and greens reflective of the prosperous and vibrant vision the Chaffeys had for the settlement.



In 1956 Rio Vista purchased and transformed into an art gallery to house the permanent collection of the Mildura Regional Art gallery. Several rooms, including the conservatory, were renovated so that artworks could be displayed. This conversion probably saved the house from demolition and the grounds from subdivision.




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